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By Nakia Forsberg & Kelsey Neufeld

Introduction:

According to Bailey (2011), Cells in the human body number in the trillions and come in all shapes and sizes. These tiny structures are the basic unit of living organisms. Cells comprise tissues, tissues comprise organs, organs form organ systems, and organ systems work together in an organism.  There are numerous cells in the human body and each one plays a significant role in how are body functions and adheres to all of its demands.  

Types of cells:

1.) Skin Cells:   

  • Skin cells are made up of trillion of tiny cells.  These cells can also be referred to as Keratinocytes.  Keratin is a substance in the human body that helps make your skin waterproof and the word cyte means cell which is where the word Keratinocyte is derived from.  Keratinocytes are constantly being reproduced and as they move further away from the blood supply they begin to die, which is why your skin can flake.  These flakes that are coming off of your skin are, in fact, dead skin cells.  Due to the outer layer of your skin being dead this is a main reason you can shave without pain.  Skin cells have distinct pigments, proteins in them that play a role in our coloring.  Some pigments may be darker or lighter which is why there is a variance in skin color from one human being to the other.  Your skin also helps protect against harmful intruders and acts as an insulator in keeping you warm.









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2.) Blood Cells:

  •  There are three types of blood cells in the human body and each one has its own specific function.  Red blood cells are in charge of the transportation of oxygen.  White blood cells help to fight off infection and platelets are there to aid in blood clotting.


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3.) Muscle Cells:

  • Each muscle that the human body has performs a specific function.  These functions is what allows our body to move and react to the ever changing world around us.   Muscle cells form muscle tissue which is what allows the body to move.  There are three branches of muscle tissue that exist: Skeletal (voluntary), Cardiac and Smooth (both involuntary)
    • Skeletal muscle is found in the biceps
    • Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and is highly fatigue resistant
    • Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hallow organs such as the stomach, or walls of blood vessels






4.) Nerve Cells:
  • Nerve cells transmit and process electric current throughout the body

  • Send signals to and from the CNS so that the body can make proper adjustments

  • Two types of nerve cells are sensory and motor

    • Sensory neurons send signals from internal organs or external stimuli (eyes, ears, tongue and skin) to the CNS which then allows for (seeing, taste and touch to occur)

    • Motor neurons carry information from the CNS to the muscle allowing for muscle movements and reactions 

  • There is the CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system)

    The peripheral nervous system is divided into the following sections:

    • Sensory Nervous System - sends information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli.                    

      • Motor Nervous System - carries information from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands              


      • Somatic Nervous System - controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs

      • Autonomic Nervous System - controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth and cardiac muscle

      •                                

      • Sympathetic - controls activities that increase energy expenditures.

  • Parasympathetic - controls activities that conserve energy expenditures.

  • Enteric - controls digestive system 

Bailey, R. (n.d.). Learn About the Peripheral Nervous System and Why It's Important. Retrieved June 8, 2018, from https://www.thoughtco.com/nervous-system-373574

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5.) Bone Cells:                                                                                                                                                                                                   

  • The bone cell is the toughest cell system in the human body, it supports the framework of the body.  Due to bone cells helping to break down and reproduce new stronger bone these play a vital role in helping to keep our internal organs safe.  Bone cells have the ability to reform/mold.  

  • 3 types of bone cells:

    • Osteoclasts- decompose bone for re-absorption

    • Osteoblasts- regulate bone mineralization and produces osteiod (organic substance that mineralizes to help form bones)

    • Osteocytes- aid in bone formation and help maintain calcium balance


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6.) Sex Cells: (Gametes)

  • Sex cells are the reproductive cells in the male and female body.  The male sex cell is called Sperm and it is motile, meaning it can move around.  The female sex cell is called Ova.  Unlike the sperm cell, the ova is non-motile.  Other cells in the human body can replicate through a process called mitosis but the sex cells reproduce through a process called meiosis.



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 References:


 Bailey, R. (2011, May 11). 10 Different Types of Body Cells. Retrieved June 8, 2018, from https://www.thoughtco.com/types-of-cells-in-the-body-373388

 Types of Cells in the Human Body and Their Uses: A Study Guide. (2015, April 07). Retrieved June 8, 2018, from https://www.brighthubeducation.com/science-homework-help/106593-types-of-cells-in-the-human-body/











































 

   










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